Deployment as FastCGI application

Fano Framework can be deployed as FastCGI web application.

See Working with Application for information how to create FastCGI web application.

See example application:

You may want to look Scaffolding with Fano CLI to easily create new FastCGI web application project.

Deploy with Fano CLI

Simplest way to setup Fano web application with web server is to deploy FastCGI application with Fano CLI, run with --deploy-fcgi=[domain name] or --deploy-fcgid=[domain name]. The first command will setup FastCGI virtual host that works with mod_proxy_fcgi while the other for mod_fcgid.

Inside Fano web application project directory, run

$ sudo fanocli --deploy-fcgi=myapp.me

Command above, will create virtual host for Apache web server, enabled virtual host configuration, reload Apache web server configuration and add entry to myapp.me domain in /etc/hosts.

To setup for nginx web server add --web-server=nginx. Without it, it is assumed Apache web server.

$ sudo fanocli --deploy-fcgi=myapp.me --web-server=nginx

To deploy FastCGI web application for Apache mod_fcgid, run with --deploy-fcgid

$ sudo fanocli --deploy-fcgid=myapp.me

Apache with mod_proxy_fcgi module

To deploy as FastCGI application with mod_proxy_fcgi

You need to have mod_proxy_fcgi installed and loaded. This module is Apache’s built-in module, so it is very likely that you will have it with your Apache installation. You just need to make sure it is loaded.

Debian

For example, on Debian,

$ sudo a2enmod proxy_fcgi
$ sudo systemctl restart apache2

Create virtual host config and add ProxyPassMatch, for example

<VirtualHost *:80>
     ServerName www.example.com
     DocumentRoot /home/example/public

     <Directory "/home/example/public">
         Options +ExecCGI
         AllowOverride FileInfo
         Require all granted
     </Directory>

    ProxyRequests Off
    ProxyPassMatch /(css|images|js).* !
    ProxyPassMatch ^/(.*)$ fcgi://127.0.0.1:20477
</VirtualHost>

You may need to replace fcgi://127.0.0.1:20477 with host and port where your application is running.

Two ProxyPassMatch lines tell Apache to serve requests for files inside css, images, js directories directly. For other, pass requests to our application.

On Debian, save it to /etc/apache2/sites-available for example as fano-fastcgi.conf Enable this site and restart Apache

$ sudo a2ensite fano-fastcgi.conf
$ sudo systemctl restart apache2

Use unix domain socket

If your Fano application and Apache run on same machine, you can get small improvement by using unix domain socket file. See example Fano Fastcgi Unix application.

If application is listening using socket file /tmp/fano-fcgi.sock, you need to change ProxyPassMatch as follows:

ProxyPassMatch ^/(.*)$ "unix:/tmp/fano-fcgi.sock|fcgi://127.0.0.1/"

Note that |fcgi://127.0.0.1/ is required so mod_proxy_fcgi is called to handle request, although, host and port information are ignored.

Socket file permission issue

You need to make sure that /tmp/fano-fcgi.sock is writeable by Apache.

If you run with something like

$ ./bin/app.cgi

/tmp/fano-fcgi.sock file will be own by user where above command is executed. It will cause permission denied for Apache user.

For development stage, easy solution is just change owner of file. After application is bound and listen, you may want to open another shell and execute

$ sudo chown [your current user]:www-data /tmp-fano-fcgi.sock

where www-data is user which Apache runs.

Using /tmp also may cause problem if you run Debian 9 - based distribution (such as Ubuntu 18.04). In Debian 9 (Stretch) or newer, each user, by default, has private /tmp directory. So if you run application as current user, /tmp/fano-fcgi.sock will not be found by Apache which run as different user.

Proper way is setup application to run as service, set socket file to /var/run and set group which service run, add Apache user into that group. Then you can just run application using

$ sudo systemctl start [your-app-service-name]

Fedora

The difference between Debian and Fedora regarding Apache mostly about default service name (Debian uses apache2 and Fedora uses httpd), user which Apache run (Debian uses www-data user while Fedora uses apache) and default Apache configuration location.

Create virtual host

Apache main configuration is stored in /etc/httpd/httpd.conf. To add virtual host configuration, you can simply add entry to this file or prefered way is to create configuration in file /etc/httpd/conf.d/ directory.

In Fedora and Apache 2.4, /etc/httpd/conf.d/ directory will be search for additional configurations. So you can just create virtual host file inside this directory.

Reload Apache service

Tell Apache to load configuration by running

$ sudo systemctl reload httpd

Apache with mod_fcgid module

To deploy as FastCGI application with mod_fcgid, make sure you use TSimpleSockFastCGIWebApplication as base application. Internally, it uses TBoundSocketSvrImpl as socket server.

Unlike mod_proxy_fcgi module where our application is run independently, mod_fcgid provides automatic process management. So our application process lifecycle is managed by this module. It will spawn or kill one or more our application processes based on request load.

Socket connection is already bound and listen by mod_fcgid. so we need to use TBoundSocketSvrImpl as socket server.

and of course you need to have mod_fcgid installed and loaded.

Debian

To install mod_fcgid,

$ sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-fcgid

To enable it,

$ sudo a2enmod fcgid
$ sudo systemctl restart apache2

Create virtual host config and add fcgid-script, for example

<VirtualHost *:80>
     ServerName www.example.com
     DocumentRoot /home/example/public

     <Directory "/home/example/public">
        Options +ExecCGI
        AllowOverride FileInfo
        Require all granted
        AddHandler fcgid-script .cgi
        DirectoryIndex app.cgi
     </Directory>
</VirtualHost>

Configuration above basically tells Apache to give any request to *.cgi file to be handled by mod_fcgid module (identified by fcgid-script handler).

Nginx

Create virtual host configuration file in /etc/nginx/conf.d directory, for example

server {
    listen 80;
    root /home/example.fano/public;
    server_name example.fano;
    error_log /var/log/nginx/example.fano-error.log;
    access_log /var/log/nginx/example.fano-access.log;

    location / {
        try_files $uri @example.fano;
    }

    location @example.fano {
        fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:20477;
        include fastcgi_params;
    }
}

Change fastcgi_pass to match host and port where application is listening.

Last two location configurations tells Nginx to serve files directly if exists, otherwise pass it to our application.

If listening using unix domain socket, you need to change fastcgi_pass to

fastcgi_pass unix:/tmp/fano-fcgi.sock;

where /tmp/fano-fcgi.sock is socket file which application using and of course it must be writeable by Nginx.

Issue with firewall

In Fedora-based distribution, firewall is active by default. Read Issue with firewall for more information.

Permission issue with SELinux

Running FastCGI application may be subject to strict security policy of SELinux. Read Permission issue with SELinux for more information.

Issue with web server limit

There are configuration that affect our application. For example, in Apache, LimitRequestBody puts limit total in bytes of request body.

If you running FastCGI web application with mod_fcgid module, FcgidMaxRequestLen limits number of bytes of request length. Since Apache 2.3.9, its default value is 128 KB.

If your application is handling big file upload, you may need to adjust its value, otherwise you will get HTTP 500 error if you try to upload big file.

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